To study's primary objective is to establish the effectiveness of a low-threshold guided self-help intervention targeted at improving one's self image in people with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms and low self esteem. We expect to find…
angst; depressie; zelfbeeld; zelfhulp
head of department of Clinical Psychology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Onderzoeksproduct en/of interventie
The intervention's primary focus is enhancing self-esteem. The primary outcome measure used in this study is the
Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965). This scale includes 10 statements (such as 'generally speaking, I am
content with myself'). The respondent then checks a score on a 4-point scale which indicates the extent to which the
respondent identifies with the statement. Total scores vary from 0 to 30, higher scores indicate higher self esteem. In a
sample of the Dutch population, a mean score of 20.9 was reported with a standard deviation of 4.4. Both international
and Dutch studies report high reliability, validity and internal homogeneity (Cronbach alpha .86; Franck et al., 2008).
Achtergrond van het onderzoek
Recently, a self-help book based on cognitive behavioural techniques targeted at improving one's self image has been
published (de Neef, 2010). In the current study, the effectiveness of the use of this self-help book is studied and
compared to a wait list control group of people with low self esteem and subclinical anxiety and/or depressive
symptoms. Guidance provided to all participants receiving the self-help book entails feedback and aswers to questions
regarding the assignments described in the book.
Recruitment takes place among the general population in the Netherlands.
Doel van het onderzoek
To study's primary objective is to establish the effectiveness of a low-threshold guided self-help intervention targeted at improving one's self image in people with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms and low self esteem. We expect to find both a significant
improvement of self-esteem (primary outcome measure) and a significant diminshment of anxiety and depression.
1. Pretreatment (T0);
2. Posttreatment 10 weeks after T0(T1);
3. 12 weeks after T1 (T2).
Onderzoeksproduct en/of interventie
Respondents in the experimental condition are offered the self-help book. The intervention or course entails 6 different
techniques, based on elements from cognitive behavioural therapy. Duration of the intervention may vary from 6 to 10
weeks, depending on the pace of the individual respondent. Guidance by specially trained students and research
assistants is mainly focused on motivating the respondent to work through the entire book, whilst providing feedback
and information in case of any misunderstanding of the assignments described in the book.
Respondents in the control condition are placed on a waiting-list. Throughout the waiting period they do not receive the self-help book, but are free to seek help through the common channels. After the follow-up period of 3 months, they are offered the self-help book, with the same guidance provided by the university.
Belangrijkste voorwaarden om deel te mogen nemen (Inclusiecriteria)
1. The presence of clinically relevant anxiety and/or depressive symptoms as established by a score of 7 or
higher on the HADS-A and/or a score of 16 or higher on the CES-D;
2. The participant is suffering from low self-esteem as established by administration of the Rosenberg selfesteem
scale (Rosenberg, 1965);
3. The participant is troubled and/or limited by the aforementioned symptoms.
Belangrijkste redenen om niet deel te kunnen nemen (Exclusiecriteria)
Insufficient understanding of the Dutch language.
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